Foreign domination in italy
Spain thus established complete hegemony over all the Italian states except Venice , which alone maintained its independence. Several Italian states were ruled directly, while others remained Spanish dependents. Naples, Sicily , and Sardinia which had all been dependencies of Aragon , as well as Milan , came under direct Spanish rule and owed their allegiance to the sovereign according to their own laws and traditions. Their foreign policy interests were subordinated to the imperial designs of Spain, which also appointed their chief officers viceroys in Naples, Palermo , and Cagliari; a governor in Milan and administered their internal affairs through local councils. At this council, the three major states—Naples, Sicily, and Milan—were each represented by two regents, one Castilian and one native. Sardinia remained a dependency of Aragon.
History of Italy during foreign domination and the unification
History of Italy (–) - The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
Under Spanish domination the Italian states enjoyed a period of relative internal peace, in part because they directed their energies primarily against the threat of Ottoman invasion. This victory brought Ottoman expansion to an end in the eastern Mediterranean, but not in the Balkans. The Counter Reformation brought about reforms in the institutions and doctrine of the Catholic Church and reasserted the spiritual power of the church. Baroque religious architecture, which reached its peak in Italy during the 16th and 17th centuries, celebrated the glory of the church. The Counter Reformation war on heresy brought to an end the artistic freedoms of earlier times. Many Italian freethinkers became victims of the Holy Office of the Inquisition; philosopher and poet Giordano Bruno, for example, was burned at the stake. The church also took the offensive against scientists, forcing Galileo Galilei to renounce the Copernican theory that the Earth revolves around the Sun.
Italy History VIII: The Second Fall: Foreign Domination
Foreign domination is a term used in the historiography of multiple countries to characterize successive periods of rule by foreign powers. The term has notably been used to refer to periods of Italian , Israeli , Eastern European and Polish history. Foreign domination is commonly used to describe the condition of foreign rule over Italian states at the beginning of the Risorgimento , when the only state left under local Italian rule was Piedmont-Sardinia predecessor state of Italy. All of Italy was organised in independent states from the 11thth century as a result of the Walk to Canossa and the Treaty of Venice , but this condition was lost between the end of the Italian Wars and the balance of power established by the Congress of Vienna.
Related e. The history of Italy in the Early Modern period was partially characterized by foreign domination : Following the Italian Wars to , Italy saw a long period of relative peace, first under Habsburg Spain to and then under Habsburg Austria to During the Napoleonic era , Italy was a client state of the French Republic to The Congress of Vienna restored the situation of the late 18th century, which was however quickly overturned by the incipient movement of Italian unification. The Italian Renaissance ended in around , but the Italy remained an important centre of Western culture throughout the period.